Leveraging research to drive long-term value in your startup


The keys to a successful research-driven startup are encouraging publishing, building a culture where scientists contribute to product development, and hiring team members who are passionate about pairing groundbreaking discoveries with practical solutions. Here’s how to lay that foundation.
As the founder of Pinecone, a vector database for AI applications, I've had the unique opportunity to build a startup that combines cutting-edge research with practical product development. 

This experience of being a “scientist founder” has taught me valuable lessons about the challenges and opportunities of building a successful research-driven company. In this post, I'll share insights from my journey, including the importance of investing in research, the objectives of publishing as a startup, and the benefits of using a hybrid model where researchers also contribute to the product.

Pinecone’s commitment to research

To provide some context, I’d like to share a bit about my background and Pinecone's philosophy.

I've had the privilege of working in both academia and industry. My journey includes a Ph.D. in computer science, a postdoc in applied math at Yale, and roles as an adjunct professor at Tel Aviv University and a director in a research lab at Yahoo. In 2016, I joined AWS to build services and platforms for AI and manage their AI research lab, overseeing a team of around 100 scientists and engineers. Throughout my career, I've grappled with partnerships with product teams and communicating the importance of research to executives.

At Pinecone, we've made a conscious choice to invest heavily in research. About 10% of our employees hold doctorate degrees and actively publish papers while doing cutting-edge research. This is a significant proportion for a relatively small company, and it reflects our belief in the power of research to drive innovation and long-term value.

There are two primary reasons our team regularly publishes our scientific work:

  • Marketing value: By publishing papers, we assert our expertise on the topics we work on and position ourselves as thought leaders. The research we publish today often describes technology that will become mainstream in the industry 5-10 years down the road. This helps us stay ahead of the curve and establish our credibility.
  • Quality standards: Publishing externally sets a high bar for the quality, thoughtfulness, eloquence and rigor of our work. Getting into prestigious conferences requires asking hard questions and refining our research. This process pushes us to create better, more robust solutions. I require my scientists to publish their results publicly (e.g., in public forums and journals), where their ideas can be challenged and validated by the broader scientific community.

Bridging the gap between research and product development

At Pinecone, our researchers also work as engineers and directly contribute to our products. This hybrid model allows for a tight integration between research and application. However, this approach isn't universal. Companies like Microsoft, Google and Facebook have experimented with different models, sometimes keeping research separate from product development. The choice depends on the company's goals and culture.

In my experience, the most effective research teams in a startup setting are the ones that can do high-quality research and also contribute to the core product. While researchers may not be full-fledged production engineers, they should be versatile and capable enough to integrate their research findings into the product.

The primary reason for this hybrid approach isn't just efficiency — although that's certainly a factor. The main benefit of having researchers involved in the product is that they develop a thorough understanding of the real-world problems that need to be solved.

If you don't have hands-on experience with the product, you risk working on theoretically interesting problems that are ultimately irrelevant. As a founder, I've seen this play out time and time again. It's crucial to stay connected to the actual pain points of your users.

When you’re working on hard problems, failure is common. There may not be easy solutions. This is where creativity comes into play. However, it's essential to channel that creativity toward solving acute, pressing issues. For researchers, it is tempting to get lost in intellectually stimulating problems that lead to academic papers but don't necessarily translate into practical value for the product. The most effective teams find a balance between theoretical exploration and practical application.

To build a team that thrives with this hybrid model, you need to hire people who enjoy operating in both worlds. Look for individuals who are excited by the prospect of conducting research and then rolling up their sleeves to integrate their findings into the product.

The power of research in driving startup success

Building a startup that effectively combines cutting-edge research with product development is no easy feat, but you can create a culture that values groundbreaking discoveries as well as practical solutions to real-life problems.

Here are the main principles to keep in mind when building a research-driven startup:
  • Allocate significant resources to research and support your team's academic and scientific pursuits.
  • Leverage publishing as a powerful tool for establishing expertise and ensuring rigor.
  • Embrace a hybrid model where researchers also contribute directly to the product.
  • Hire people who thrive in both the research and product development worlds.
  • Keep your research efforts laser-focused on solving the most pressing problems faced by your product and users.
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